Get a haircut:
Sign a contract:
张 is the measure word for flat things:
Exception: You cannot use 张 with plates! You have to say 一个盘子.
I like to spend time with friends
How do you address people on the street?
Somewhat close to your age: 美女, 帅哥
Older than you by 20+ years: 阿姨, 叔叔
Much older than you: 大爷
Different examples of using 了:
Note that the 了 is a character with multiple pronunciations and meanings. See 了解 (understand), 了结 (finish), and 知了(cicada).
Here is a list grammar patterns using 了, from Chinese Grammar Wiki: https://resources.allsetlearning.com/chinese/grammar/了
Anna asked a question about how people remember characters. Wenlin is an excellent academic desktop application for learning about etymology and character breakdowns (phonetic and signific), but is very expensive and not recommended for the average learner. A more affordable and more convenient tool is the Outlier Chinese character dictionary add-on for Pleco.
Kid's song: 儿歌
快乐的小王子 (The Happy Little Prince)
Mosquitoes, mosquitoes, buzzing buzzing
Biting children so they're covered with bumps
I wish to become a toad
To eat them all up
My clothes are rough
My reputation is not as good as a frog's
The children all don't like me
I'm not sad, nor am I vexed
This song can be thought of as a satirical reaction to this famous kid's song: 虫儿飞 (Bugs flying), although the bugs are clearly lightning bugs, even if not explicitly stated
Sentences with similar grammar patterns:
愿 is short for 愿意, expressing "I wish", as opposed to "I want" (我想)
It's more natural to say 我愿意为你(do something) over 我想为你(do something)
Two ways to express comparison:
You can find Chinese kid's songs on iTunes Podcasts, and especially on the Chinese podcast app 喜马拉雅.
Anna: Jay Chou's movie 不能说的秘密
Ethan: ADVChina Youtube channel. Is it Stupid to Move to China in 2018? might be a good episode to start with.
Richard: Theme song from Jackie Chan movie The Myth, Endless Love
Tom: The book AI Superpowers by Kai-fu Lee