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Question about Jiang Zemin


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I read on Wiki that Jiang became leader after Deng stepped down in 1989. >>> Post-Tiananmen

However, in my history textbook, I read that:

After Deng Xiaoping died in 1997, Jiang Zemin emerged as China's leader.

But wasn't Jiang already the leader? or did Deng hold on to power until his death?

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I have read that Jiang Zemin formally received leadership titles prior to actually having the complete power associated with them. One book called China Wakes points out the irony that, while Deng effectively maintained his status as paramount leader even after stepping down (the book even bandies about the term "emperor"), his most significant formal title at this time was honorary chairman of the China Bridge Association. That may be a slight exaggeration, but you may already have seen the following page, which supports the basic interpretation of the book.



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Ah! Thanks for the link-- it really helped. Here's what I found:

Officially, Deng decided to retire from top positions when he stepped down as Chairman of the Central Military Commission in 1989, and retired from the political scene in 1992. China, however, was still in the era of Deng Xiaoping. He continued to be widely regarded as the "paramount leader" of the country, believed to have backroom control. Deng was recognized officially as "The chief architect of China's economic reforms and China's socialist modernization". To the Communist Party, he was believed to have set a good example for communist cadres who refused to retire at old age. He broke earlier conventions of holding offices for life. He was often referred to as simply Comrade Xiaoping, with no title attached.

His southern tour was initially ignored by the Beijing and national media, which were then under the control of Deng's political rivals. President Jiang Zemin showed little support. Challenging their media control, Deng penned several articles supporting reforms under the pen name "Huang Fuping" in Shanghai's Liberation Daily newspaper, which quickly gained support amongst local officials and populace. Deng's new wave of policy rhetoric gave way to a new political storm between factions in the Politburo. President Jiang eventually sided with Deng, and the national media finally reported Deng's southern tour several months after it occurred. Observers suggest that Jiang's submission to Deng's policies had solidified his position as Deng's heir apparent. On the backstage, Deng's southern tour aided his reformist allies' climb to the apex of national power, and permanently changed China's direction toward economic development. In addition, the eventual outcome of the southern tour proved that Deng was still the most powerful man in China.[6]

Deng's insistence on economic openness aided in the phenomenal growth levels of the coastal areas, especially the "Golden Triangle" region surrounding Shanghai. Deng reiterated that "some areas must get rich before others", and asserted that the wealth from coastal regions will eventually be transferred to aid economic construction inland. The theory, however, faced numerous challenges when put into practice, as provincial governments moved to protect their own interests. The policy contributed to a widening wealth disparity between the affluent coast and the underdeveloped hinterlands.

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  • 5 years later...

I wasn't sure where to post this but hopefully some people might be encouraged to discover that Jiang now sports a rainbow-halo:


The internet tells me that in Taoism, A teacher or yogi who has acquired the highest forms of accomplishment can manifest what is called "the rainbow body" or "body of light." Usually this happens after death, but it has been known to happen at other times.

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