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越文的「外來語」


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越文開始普及拉丁字母,當時除了要掃文盲,使越文更易學外,還有是要擺脫中國的影響,及認為使用拉丁字母後,會更易引進外國的科技新詞。現在互聯網就叫internet,病毒也直接叫virus,但軟件卻是phần mềm,電腦叫máy vi tính,而沒有直接用上外國原來的字詞。其中一個很有趣的現象,就是越南文把很多外來語(尤其地名)以中文的叫法直接翻譯,例如Tân Tây Lan,跟New Zealand的發音完全不一樣,卻是「新西蘭」的直譯;還有瑞士叫Thụy Sĩ ,發音跟Suisse差距很大。

這種情況倒有點像普通話,普通話裡大量外來詞,是先譯做廣東話(香港),再字對字地譯成普通話,發音跟原文不對(例如Suisse:廣東話seoi6 si6;普通話ruì sì),但漢字相通,又屬同一語言、同一國家,也就不覺有甚麼問題。

我總想問,為甚麼不再是「漢字文化圈」一員的越南文不把外來詞按自己的方法譯出,而仍然要跟從中文呢?看看拼音書寫能力挺差的日文,卻是從床鋪到大廈,從洗髮水到廁紙,都跟著拉丁語系其他語言(主要是英文及葡萄牙文)譯出來,這跟語言本身的限制到底有多少關係呢?

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