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Humblegeoff

Grand 文言文 Reading Project #6: 《前出師表》by 諸葛亮

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Humblegeoff

After today's somewhat rain-affected meeting (only five of us but still quite productive), we decided to adopt OneEye's suggestion and so next week will be reading《前出師表》by 諸葛亮. With the current serialization of 三國演義 here in Taiwan, it feels appropriate. The text is in the 古文觀止, and if we actually have classes tomorrow I should be able to provide copies (and possibly scans) to all and sundry, otherwise we'll have to wait until Friday.

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Humblegeoff

Punctuated text:

諸葛亮

前出師表

臣亮言:先帝創業未半,而中道崩殂。今天下三分,益州罷弊,此誠危急存亡之秋也。然侍衞之臣不懈於內,忠志之士忘身於外者,蓋追先帝之殊遇,欲報之於陛下也。誠宜開張聖聽,以光先帝遺德,恢宏志士之氣;不宜妄自菲薄,引喻失義,以塞忠諫之路也。

宮中府中,俱爲一體,陟罰臧否,不宜異同。若有作姦犯科,及爲忠善者,宜付有司,論其刑賞,以昭陛下平明之治;不宜偏私,使內外異法也。

侍中、侍郎郭攸之、費禕、董允等,此皆良實,志慮忠純,是以先帝簡拔以遺陛下。愚以爲宮中之事,事無大小,悉以咨之,然後施行,必能裨補闕漏,有所廣益。將軍向寵,性行淑均,曉暢軍事,試用於昔日,先帝稱之曰「能」,是以衆議舉寵爲督。愚以爲營中之事,悉以咨之,必能使行陣和睦,優劣得所。親賢臣,遠小人,此先漢所以興隆也;親小人,遠賢臣,此後漢所以傾頹也。先帝在時,每與臣論此事,未嘗不歎息痛恨於桓、靈也。侍中、尚書、長史、參軍,此悉貞亮死節之臣也,願陛下親之信之,則漢室之隆,可計日而待也。

臣本布衣,躬耕於南陽,苟全性命於亂世,不求聞達於諸侯。先帝不以臣卑鄙,猥自枉屈,三顧臣於草廬之中,諮臣以當世之事,由是感激,遂許先帝以驅馳。後值傾覆,受任於敗軍之際,奉命於危難之間。爾來二十有一年矣!先帝知臣謹慎,故臨崩寄臣以大事也。受命以來,夙夜憂歎,恐託付不效,以傷先帝之明。故五月渡瀘,深入不毛。今南方已定,兵甲已足,當獎率三軍,北定中原,庶竭駑鈍,攘除姦凶,興復漢室,還於舊都。此臣所以報先帝而忠陛下之職分也。至於斟酌損益,進盡忠言,則攸之、禕、允之任也。願陛下託臣以討賊興復之效;不效,則治臣之罪,以告先帝之靈。若無興德之言,則責攸之、禕、允等之慢,以彰其咎。陛下亦宜自謀,以諮諏善道,察納雅言。深追先帝遺詔,臣不勝受恩感激,今當遠離,臨表涕泣,不知所云。

Corrected as per skylee's comment below

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Humblegeoff

And without punctuation

諸葛亮

前出師表

臣亮言先帝創業未半而中道崩殂今天下三分益州罷弊此誠危急存亡之秋也然侍衞之臣不懈於內忠志之士忘身於外者蓋追先帝之殊遇欲報之於陛下也誠宜開張聖聽以光先帝遺德恢宏志士之氣不宜妄自菲薄引喻失義以塞忠諫之路也宮中府中俱爲一體陟罰臧否不宜異同若有作姦犯科及爲忠善者宜付有司論其刑賞以昭陛下平明之治不宜偏私使內外異法也侍中侍郎郭攸之費禕董允等此皆良實志慮忠純是以先帝簡拔以遺陛下愚以爲宮中之事事無大小悉以咨之然後施行必能裨補闕漏有所廣益將軍向寵性行淑均曉暢軍事試用於昔日先帝稱之曰能是以衆議舉寵爲督愚以爲營中之事悉以咨之必能使行陣和睦優劣得所親賢臣遠小人此先漢所以興隆也親小人遠賢臣此後漢所以傾頹也先帝在時每與臣論此事未嘗不歎息痛恨於桓靈也侍中尚書長史參軍此悉貞亮死節之臣也願陛下親之信之則漢室之隆可計日而待也臣本布衣躬耕於南陽苟全性命於亂世不求聞達於諸侯先帝不以臣卑鄙猥自枉屈三顧臣於草廬之中諮臣以當世之事由是感激遂許先帝以驅馳後值傾覆受任於敗軍之際奉命於危難之間爾來二十有一年矣先帝知臣謹慎故臨崩寄臣以大事也受命以來夙夜憂歎恐託付不效以傷先帝之明故五月渡瀘深入不毛今南方已定兵甲已足當獎率三軍北定中原庶竭駑鈍攘除姦凶興復漢室還於舊都此臣所以報先帝而忠陛下之職分也至於斟酌損益進盡忠言則攸之禕允之任也願陛下託臣以討賊興復之效不效則治臣之罪以告先帝之靈若無興德之言則責攸之禕允等之慢以彰其咎陛下亦宜自謀以諮諏善道察納雅言深追先帝遺詔臣不勝受恩感激今當遠離臨表涕泣不知所云

Corrected as per skylee's comment below

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Humblegeoff

Thanks skylee! Great stuff as ever.

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Humblegeoff

I have just discovered that tomorrow's classes at the MTC are cancelled, so there won't be any scanning or copying anytime soon, but at least I get lots of prep time...

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skylee

It seems that there are some typos above (it's been a long time since I last read through this so I am not sure). You might wish to check them -

今天下三分,益州弊 - should be 疲

愚以爲營中之事,悉以咨之,必能使行和睦 - should be 陣

These expressions are still quite commonly used nowadays -

危急存亡之秋

妄自菲薄,引喻失義

作姦犯科

事無大小

布衣

聞達

三顧草廬

深入不毛

不勝感激

不知所云

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Humblegeoff

According to my 三民書局 edition (unfortunately these are looking increasingly eccentric), the first character is correct, but the second is indeed my typo, so I will correct it. Thanks skylee!

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OneEye
This thread is relevant ->

That's actually what prompted me to suggest that we read this piece. Looking forward to it (I will actually be there next week!).

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skylee

Re 罷弊 vs 疲弊, I think in the version I studied it was the latter, but I am not sure.

In Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, there is this remark under 罷: "<古>又同'疲' pi2。". My Longman Chinese dictionary says "古通「疲」。".

According to the Taiwan MOE Dictionary, 疲弊, 疲敝, 罷敝 and 罷弊 are all interchangeable.

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Meng Lelan

With the current serialization of 三國演義 here in Taiwan, it feels appropriate.

A film or television series....?

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OneEye

My high school 國文 reader also has 疲敝. Interestingly, it also has 亡身於外 rather than 忘身於外. I haven't made it through just yet, but I'll try to note any other discrepancies I notice.

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Meng Lelan
y high school 國文 reader also has 疲敝.

Is that the textbook for the 國語 curriculum at the high school level and what grade level? Interesting that's included at that level.

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OneEye

It's one of those test-prep books everyone reads here while preparing for their university entrance exams. I don't think it's actually used in high school classes. It's called 《文言文40篇大探索》, and it's published by 翰林出版. Pretty useful little book.

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skylee

When I was a kid this was in the compulsory curriculum. But it was a long time ago.

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OneEye

It very well may be. I asked a friend about it though, and he said 「我好像有讀過類似的文章」. Not very helpful there. He's a biochem major and expresses zero interest in literature, which may explain why he remembers this piece so well.

I get the feeling that students entering university are probably expected to have read it. Whether they study it in school as part of the curriculum or on the side at a 補習班 though, I'm not sure.

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OneEye

For those who weren't with us at the meeting Wednesday evening, we didn't finish the text. Looks like we'll be finishing it next week, and then at the request of one of the members will be doing a Qing dynasty ghost story. Should be fun. The obvious choice would be something from 聊齋誌異, especially since annotated editions should be easy to find. We're wide open for suggestions.

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