Jump to content
Chinese-forums.com
Learn Chinese in China

  • Why you should look around

    Since 2003, Chinese-forums.com has been helping people learn Chinese faster and get to China sooner. Our members can recommend beginner textbooks, help you out with obscure classical vocabulary, and tell you where to get the best street food in Xi'an. And we're friendly about it too. 

    Have a look at what's going on, or search for something specific. We hope you'll join us. 
OneEye

Grand 文言文 Reading Project #8: 《師說》 by 韓愈

Recommended Posts

OneEye

Since we're in between quarters here at the MTC and people are returning home, moving here, traveling, and otherwise busy, we won't be having a meeting this week. And since Geoff is returning to the UK and starting on his PhD, I'll be doing these postings for a while.

For the sake of having a reading for this week (although it's a bit late), I'm currently reading 《師說》 by 韓愈 and thought it might be a good selection for the Grand Old Project. It's in literally every high school literature textbook I've come across here in Taiwan, so I think it's safe to say it's required reading. It's also fairly easy as these things go, so it's a good selection for in between semesters.

The text is available at wikisource. I've not gone through it carefully to check for errors, but after a quick once over nothing jumped out at me. Here's the text with punctuation:

古之學者必有師。師者,所以傳道、授業、解惑也。人非生而知之者,孰能無惑?惑而不從師,其為惑也終不解矣。

生乎吾前,其聞道也,固先乎吾,吾從而師之;生乎吾後,其聞道也,亦先乎吾,吾從而師之。吾師道也,夫庸知其年之先後生於吾乎?是故無貴、無賤、無長、無少,道之所存,師之所存也。

嗟乎!師道之不傳也久矣!欲人之無惑也難矣!古之聖人,其出人也遠矣,猶且從師而問焉;今之眾人,其下聖人也亦遠矣,而恥學於師;是故聖益聖,愚益愚,聖人之所以為聖,愚人之所以為愚,其皆出於此乎?

愛其子,擇師而教之,於其身也則恥師焉,惑矣!彼童子之師,授之書而習其句讀者,非我所謂傳其道、解其惑者也。句讀之不知,惑之不解,或師焉,或不焉,小學而大遺,吾未見其明也。

巫醫、樂師、百工之人,不恥相師;士大夫之族,曰師、曰弟子云者,則群聚而笑之。問之,則曰:「彼與彼年相若也,道相似也。」位卑則足羞,官盛則近諛。嗚呼!師道之不復可知矣。巫、醫、樂、師、百工之人,君子不齒,今其智乃反不能及,其可怪也歟!

聖人無常師:孔子師郯子、萇宏、師襄、老聃。郯子之徒,其賢不及孔子。孔子曰:「三人行,則必有我師。」是故弟子不必不如師,師不必賢於弟子,聞道有先後,術業有專攻,如是而已。

李氏子蟠,年十七,好古文,六藝經傳,皆通習之,不拘於時;學於余,余嘉其能行古道,作《師說》以貽之。

And without punctuation:

古之學者必有師師者所以傳道授業解惑也人非生而知之者孰能無惑惑而不從師其為惑也終不解矣生乎吾前其聞道也固先乎吾吾從而師之生乎吾後其聞道也亦先乎吾吾從而師之吾師道也夫庸知其年之先後生於吾乎是故無貴無賤無長無少道之所存師之所存也嗟乎師道之不傳也久矣欲人之無惑也難矣古之聖人其出人也遠矣猶且從師而問焉今之眾人其下聖人也亦遠矣而恥學於師是故聖益聖愚益愚聖人之所以為聖愚人之所以為愚其皆出於此乎愛其子擇師而教之於其身也則恥師焉惑矣彼童子之師授之書而習其句讀者非我所謂傳其道解其惑者也句讀之不知惑之不解或師焉或不焉小學而大遺吾未見其明也巫醫樂師百工之人不恥相師士大夫之族曰師曰弟子云者則群聚而笑之問之則曰彼與彼年相若也道相似也位卑則足羞官盛則近諛嗚呼師道之不復可知矣巫醫樂師百工之人君子不齒今其智乃反不能及其可怪也歟聖人無常師孔子師郯子萇宏師襄老聃郯子之徒其賢不及孔子孔子曰三人行則必有我師是故弟子不必不如師師不必賢於弟子聞道有先後術業有專攻如是而已李氏子蟠年十七好古文六藝經傳皆通習之不拘於時學於余余嘉其能行古道作師說以貽之

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Site Sponsors:
Pleco for iPhone / Android iPhone & Android Chinese dictionary: camera & hand- writing input, flashcards, audio.
Study Chinese in Kunming 1-1 classes, qualified teachers and unique teaching methods in the Spring City.
Learn Chinese Characters Learn 2289 Chinese Characters in 90 Days with a Unique Flash Card System.
Hacking Chinese Tips and strategies for how to learn Chinese more efficiently
Popup Chinese Translator Understand Chinese inside any Windows application, website or PDF.
Chinese Grammar Wiki All Chinese grammar, organised by level, all in one place.

skylee

Thanks for posting. I had not studied this piece before but it was very easy to understand.

I think all the reasoning is fine and everything it says is still applicable today. Of course we should learn broadly, from whoever who is well-learnt regardless of his/her background, rank and age. Too bad there is not much mentioning about the creation of knowledge and the importance of creativity. But perhaps the mentioning of his young pupil at the end says more than that we can learn from some young people, but also implies that young people can create knowledge? (I am stretching it a bit here.)

One question, why do you guys keep posting the pieces without punctuation marks? What is the importance of such version?

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
gato

Creativity is basically the generation of ideas, much of it happens naturally. What's important is not to suppress new ideas just because it's unorthodox. What Han Yu said here is relevant because the biggest threat to creativity is obedience to authority, which of course is a prominent feature of Confucian culture. In that sense, his message here that one can find wisdom in people, regardless of rank or age, can help to foster creativity.

But Han Yu did advocate the suppression of Buddhism and Daoism ("人其人,火其书,庐其居" in "原道" below), so he likely wasn't a great advocate of creativity, either, despite his nice words above.

http://bbs.jguo.cn/t...d-4479-1-1.html

我读韩愈《原道》之三

原文:夫所谓先王之教者,何也?博爱之谓仁;行而宜之之谓义;由是而之焉之谓道;足乎己,无待于外之谓德。其文, 《诗》、《书》、《易》、《春秋》;其法,礼、乐、刑、政;其民,士、农、工、贾;其位,君臣、父子、师友、宾主、昆弟、夫妇、;其服,麻、丝;其居,宫 室;其食,粟米、果蔬、鱼肉。其为道易明,而其为教易行也。是故以之为己,则顺而祥;以之为人,则爱而公;以之为心,则和而平;以之为天下国家,无所处而 不当。是故生则得其情,死则尽其常。效焉而天神假,庙焉而人鬼享。曰:“斯道也,何道也?”曰:“斯吾所谓道也,非向所谓老与佛之道也。尧以是传之舜,舜 以是传之禹,禹以是传之汤,汤以是传之文武周公,文武周公传之孔子,孔子传之孟轲,轲之死,不得其传焉。荀与扬也,择焉而不精,语焉而不详。由周公而上, 上而为君,故其事行。由周公而下,下而为臣,故其说长。”

瓜评:所谓“图穷匕首见”,《原道》之谓乎?

韩愈在结尾部分完全否认了人民的宗教信仰需要和宗教信仰自由,他认为只要坚守先王之教就可以了。看,韩老所列的内容多么丰富啊!不由得使我想起那个故事:臣子报告天下饥荒,人民无饭吃,皇帝问怎么不吃肉糜呢?

而韩愈叙述先王之道传导路线,竟然是为了说明:周公以前,道在君,所以道在事行;而周公以后,道在臣,所以道在立 言。韩老的这个说法可谓大胆到极点,是冒了掉脑袋的风险的。这等于说:周公以前,圣人为君;周公以后,圣人为臣。这等于说:“帝之与王,其号虽殊,其所以 为圣一也”,已经被韩愈自己否定了。

而且,由于孟轲之后传道乏人,所以荀扬不足道哉。那么谁继承了这圣人之道呢?当然是说得清“什么是道”的人。这等于大声疾呼:还不睁眼看看是谁在《原道》吗?

嘿嘿,都说儒学的抹黑自宋儒始,我今方知其实是自韩愈始。写文章是高手,论胆大是冠军,可就是为了自己的“旗手”地位而大呼小叫,格局太小了。

原文:然则,如之何而可也?曰:“不塞不流,不止不行。人其人,火其书,庐其居。明先王之道以道之。鳏、寡、孤、独、废、疾者有养也,其亦庶乎其可也。”

瓜评:最后,韩老仍惦记着要灭了来抢饭碗的那二帮人。秦始皇是焚书坑儒,韩老是焚书还俗,确实文明了许多。但是一个是坑其身,一个是诛其心,我认为论残暴的程度,二者并无二致。

那么,对于韩老,对于这样的高级知识分子、宗师级人物,我们该怎么办呢?

这样吧,我们就这样对尊敬的韩老恳求:您立言,我们无权干涉;可是我们信儒、信道还是信佛,可不可以让我们自己选择呢?请您正自己的心、诚自己的意,可以吗?让我们的心、意自由吧。

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
OneEye
One question, why do you guys keep posting the pieces without punctuation marks? What is the importance of such version?

I believe someone requested it a while back, and so Geoff started posting them all without punctuation. I understand that Chinese lit majors in Taiwan are expected to read unpunctuated texts and be able to punctuate them, and of course for anyone doing research in original texts it's an important skill to develop (a good portion of the group here in Taipei over the summer consisted of current and future grad students in Chinese history, literature, and linguistics).

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
skylee

I think I tend to forget what we are reading and discussing was written over 1000 years ago (simply because we can read it so easily). :) It was a very different time, and people might think very differently, for all kinds of reasons.

Anyways, people have never failed to create, though some were better than others, and some periods were better than others. And throughout the world it was not uncommon that new discoveries/ knowledge were discouraged, suppressed or misunderstood.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
skylee

I like this series, should be useful to others (the recording is no longer available) -> http://rthk.hk/chiculture/chilit/dy04_1301.htm

It's explanation of the last paragraph is not the same as my interpretation. Mine was probably not right, as the pupil is only praised for being willing/able to learn from others, not for his ability of 六藝經傳,皆通習之. I probably was confused by the earlier 生乎吾後,其聞道也,亦先乎吾,吾從而師之.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

Join the conversation

You can post now and select your username and password later. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

Guest
Click here to reply. Select text to quote.

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


×
×
  • Create New...