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I know there have been some threads on this topic, but they're mainly just lists. I'm wondering if there is somewhere some more detailed discussion. I'm particularly interested in those characters where the two pronunciations a) differ only by tone and b) have a related meaning. For instance, 散 is usually fourth tone, but the third tone seems to be used in adjectives and almost seems to be a past participle of the fourth tone version? Or 冠, where the first tone is a noun and the fourth tone is the corresponding verb. I'm wondering:

a) is there any pattern, i.e. are certain tones favoured for certain parts of speech

b) is there anything in the historical development of the language that would explain these?

c) are there technical terms for this kind of 多音字, or for any other kind for that matter?

d) is there any way to learn them other than simple case-by-case memorisation?


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