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geek_frappa

Is there a complete list of Chinese "parts of speech" categories?

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geek_frappa

Is there a complete list of Chinese "parts of speech" categories?

Here's what I have so far...

VERBS

NOUNS

PRONOUNS

ADVERBS

ADJECTIVES

NUMBER/NUMERICAL EXPRESSIONS

MEASURE WORDS

PARTICLES

QUESTION WORDS

CONJUNCTIONS

LOCALIZERS

ASPECTS

MODIFIERS

CONSTRUCTIONS

Did I leave anything out?

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trevelyan

There isn't really any comprehensively agreed on list of parts of speech once you get beyond the basics. Even issues of how to classify words like 了 are problematic. And it doesn't help that there isn't any standardized way to describe many parts of speech.

To give an example, there are clearly multiple types of ADVERBS. At a minimum, there are those that go directly before verbs and those which precede xingrongci. Or are there? Most dictionaries do not make this distinction and so treat words like 当然 and 很 as functional equivalents (we track the former with the tag CAD and treat it as a subset of the adverb class). Otherwise, I'd add INTERJECTIONS and ONOMATOPIAE, and would probably tag the various verb COMPLEMENTS (directional, etc.) as well.

I think Adso tracks most of these already. The only categories in the list we don't seem to cover now are LOCALIZERS and MODIFIERS, although perhaps we do under a different term. Also CONSTRUCTIONS. I'm assuming this is for your dictionary project. Drop a line if you end up tracking any classes that we don't support at Adso and/or doing any data entry/classification, as we should be able to add support easily and can expand our tagging efforts. The basic categories we use are online here, although I'm you already know about this.

Cheers,

--david

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geek_frappa

these are good points about arbitrary classification. perhaps the classification should be open to interpretation for now until many approaches have been tested?

in English language we have the same problem: the classes are chosen without analytical reasoning. they are simply defined and followed.

i suppose it is possible to place a word in more than 1 category (class)??

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shibo77

[1] 实词shi2ci2 FULL WORD

(1) 名词ming2ci2 NOUN {苹果ping2guo3 "apple"}

1 具体事物ju4ti3shi4wu4 ABSOLUTE: 苹果

2 抽象事物chou1xiang4shi4wu4 ABSTRACT: 历史

(2) 动词dong4ci2 VERB {听ting1 "to listen"}

(3) 形容词xing2rong2ci2 ADJECTIVE {好hao3 "good, well"}

1 性质xing4zhi4 QUALITY: 好

2 状态zhuang4tai4 STATE: 愉快

(4) 数词shu4ci2 NUMERAL {二er4 "two"}

1 基数ji1shu4 CARDINAL: 二

2 序数xu4shu4 ORDINAL: 第二

(5) 量词liang4ci2 CLASSIFIER (COUNTER) {双shuang1 "pair"}

1 物量wu4liang4 QUALIFYING NOUN: 双

2 动量dong4liang4 QUALIFYING VERB: 回

(6) 代词dai4ci2 PRONOUN {它ta1 "it"}

1 人称ren2cheng1 PERSONAL: 它

2 疑问yi2wen4 INTERROGATIVE: 谁

3 指示zhi3shi4 DEMONSTRATIVE: 这

[2] 虚词xu1ci2 FUNCTION WORD

(1) 副词fu4ci2 ADVERB {非常fei1chang2 "very"}

1 程度cheng2du4 DEGREE: 非常

2 范围fan4wei2 SCOPE: 都

3 时间shi2jian1 TIME: 立刻

4 频率pin2lü4 FREQUENCY: 再

5 肯定与否定ken3ding4yu3fou3ding4 AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION: 也许

6 语气yu3qi4 TONE: 难道

7 情貌qing2mao4 APPEARANCE: 忽然

(2) 介词jie4ci2 PREPOSITION {从cong2 "from"}

1 起止于方向qi2zhi3yu3fang1xiang4 START-END AND DIRECTION: 从

2 处所chu4suo3 PLACE: 到

3 时间shi2jian1 TIME: 于

4 对象dui4xiang4 OBJECT: 把

5 目的mu4di4 GOAL: 为

(3) 连词lian2ci2 CONJUNCTION {和he2 "and"}

1 并列关系bing4lie4guan1xi4 EQUAL RELATIONSHIP: 同

2 递进关系di4jin4guan1xi4 SEQUENTIAL RELATIONSHIP: 而且

3 转折关系zhuan3zhe2guan1xi4 TURNING RELATIONSHIP: 但是

4 因果关系yin1guo3guan1xi4 CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP: 因为

5 假设关系jia3she4guan1xi4 PRESUMPTIONAL RELATIONSHIP: 如果

6 条件关系tiao2jian4guan1xi4 CONDITIONAL RELATIONSHIP: 只要

(4) 助词zhu4ci2 AUXILIARY (PARTICIPLE) {了le5 (perfective participle)}

1 结构jie2gou4 STRUCTURE: 的

2 动态dong4tai4 MOVEMENT: 了

3 语气yu3qi4 TONE: 吧

(5) 叹词tan4ci2 INTERJECTION {啊a4 "ah"}

1 感叹gan3tan4 EXCLAMATORY: 啊

2 呼唤应答hu1huan4ying4da2 CALLING-RESPONDING: 喂

(6) 拟声词ni3sheng1ci2 ONOMATOPE (ONOMATOPOEIA) {轰隆hong1long1 (roar of thunder)}

It is from my textbook, some of the English I could not find in my dictionary so I had to think of them myself, so they might not be the correct term. Otherwise, all words when given in context could be classified into a category.

-Shibo :mrgreen:

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shibo77

sub-classified by (1)性质xing4zhi4 qualification

1 名词ming2ci2 NOMINAL

1 名词,动词,代词,形容词为定语:

1 Noun, verb, pronoun, adjective as attribute:

名词+名词: 北京的街道

Noun+Noun:

代词+名词:什么地方

Pronoun+Noun:

动词+名词:复习提纲

Verb+Noun:

形容词+名词:伟大的祖国

Adjective+Noun:

2 指示代词,数词,量词为定语:

2 Demonstrative pronoun, numeral, classifier as attribute:

指示代词+数词+量词+名词: 这五个孩子

Demonstrative pronoun+numeral+classifier+noun:

指示代词+量词+名词: 这个孩子

Demonstrative pronoun+classifier+noun:

指示代词+数词+名词: 那俩人

Demonstrative pronoun+numeral+noun:

数词+量词+名词: 一封信

Numeral+classifier+noun:

3 名词+方位词:河边

3 Noun+locational adverb:

4 “的“字短语:

4 Phrases with the character "的":

名词+“的“: 图书馆的

Noun+“的“:

代词+“的“: 他的

Pronoun+“的“:

动词+“的“: 吃的

Verb+“的“:

形容词+“的“: 大的

Adjective+“的“:

2 动词dong4ci2 VERBAL

1 动词+宾语: 保持安静

1 Verb+object:

2 动词+补语: 听明白

2 Verb+complement:

3 动词+"得“+补语: 吃得了

3 Verb+"得“+complement:

4 状语+动词: 热烈欢迎

4 Adverbial+verb:

5a 状语+动词+补语: 迅速地跑过去

5a Adverbial+verb+complement:

5b 状语+动词+补语+宾语: 科学的总结出三十年来的经验

5b Adverbial+verb+complement+object:

5c 状语+动词+宾语: 正确地回答了问题

5c Adverbial+verb+object:

5d 动词+补语+宾语: 去了几次上海

5d Verb+complement+object:

6 能愿动词(+状语)+动词(+宾语)(+补语): 愿意立刻出发

6 Desiderative verb(+adverbial)+verb(+object)(+complement):

3 形容词xing2rong2ci2 ADJECTIVAL

1 状语+形容词: 很高兴

1 Adverbial+adjective:

2 形容词+补语: 高兴得很

2 Adjective+complement:

3 形容词+形容词: 生动活泼

3 Adjective+adjective:

or by (2)构成gou4cheng2 constituency

1 主谓zhu3wei4 SUBJECT-PREDICATE

主语(名词,代词或名词短语) + 谓语(动词,形容词,动词短语或形容词短语): 身体很健康

Subject(noun, pronoun or nominal phrase) + Predicate(verb, adjective, verbal phrase or adjectival phrase):

2 介宾jie3bin1 PREPOSITION-OBJECT

介词 + 宾语(名词或名词短语): 在小河边

Preposition + Object(noun or nominal phrase):

3 复指fu4zhi4 COMBINATION

词+词 或 短语+短语: 他们三位

word+word or phrase+phrase:

4 固定gu4ding4 FIXED (IDIOM)

1 习惯语xi2guan4yu3 HABITUAL PHRASE (IDIOM): 你一言,我一语。

2 熟语shu2yu3(成语cheng2yu3) IDIOMATIC PHRASE (IDIOM): 一干二净

It is from my textbook, some of the English I could not find in my dictionary so I had to think of them myself, so they might not be the correct term.

-Shibo :mrgreen:

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shibo77

单句dan1ju4 SIMPLE SENTENCE

1主谓zhu3wei4 SUBJECT-PREDICATE

1 名词谓语 (谓语为名词或名词短语)): 他六十岁。

1 Nominal subject-predicate (Noun or nominal phrase as predicate):

2 动词谓语 (谓语为动词或动词短语): 时间就是生命。

2 Verbal subject-predicate (Verb or verbal phrase as predicate):

3 形容词谓语 (谓语为形容词或形容词短语)): 天黑了。

3 Adjectival subject-predicate (Adjective or adjectival phrase as predicate):

4 主谓谓语 (谓语为主谓短语): 这个问题他心里有底。

4 Phrasal subject-predicate (Subject-predicate phrase as predicate):

2非主谓fei1zhu3wei4 NON-SUBJECT-PREDICATE

1 名词非主谓 (为名词或名词短语构成): 票!

1 Nominal non-subject-predicate (Composed of noun or nominal phrase):

2 动词非主谓 (为动词或动词短语构成): 来!

2 Verbal non-subject-predicate (Composed of verb or verbal phrase):

3 形容词非主谓 (为形容词或形容词短语构成): 奇怪!

3 Adjectival non-subject-predicate (Composed of adjective or adjectival phrase):

4 叹词非主谓 (为叹词构成): 喂!

4 Interjectional non-subject-predicate (Composed of interjection):

3特殊te4shu1 SPECIAL

1 "把"字句 (施动者+介词“把”+受动者+动词(+补语)): 他俩悄悄把行李放好。

1 Sentences with the character “把”:

2 "被"字句 (受动者+介词“被”(+施动者)+动词(+补语)): 行李被他俩放好。 行李被放好。

2 Sentences with the character "被":

3 连动句 (谓语为动词短语+动词短语): 我便写一封信回去解释。

3 Compositional (Verbal phrase+verbal phrase as predicate):

4 兼语句 (谓语为动词+宾语): 大家一致选张军当班长。

4 Simultaneous (Verb+object as predicate):

复句fu4ju4 COMPOUND SENTENCE

sub-classified by (1) 形式xing2shi4 form

1 直接组合zhi2jie1zu3he2 Direct combination 一双筷子容易断,十双筷子断就难。

2 关联组合guan1lian2zhu3he2 Relational combination 因为我们是为人民服务的,所以, 我们如果有缺点,就不怕别人批评指出。

or by (2) 关系guan1xi4 relation

1 并列关系bing4lie4guan1xi4 Equal relation: 我买票,他照看行李。

2 承接关系cheng2jie1guan1xi4 Conjuncting relation: 你先做作业,然后再出去玩。

3 递进关系di4jin4guan1xi4 Sequential relation: 他能说日语,说得非常流利。

4 选择关系xuan3ze2guan1xi4 Decisional relation: 这块地种花好呢?种菜好呢?

5 转折关系zhuan3zhe2guan1xi4 Turning relation: 虽然我一见便知道是闰土,但又不是我记忆中的闰土了。

6 因果关系yin1guo3guan1xi4 Cause-effect relation: 因为今天下雨,所以我呆在家里。

7 假设关系jia3she4guan1xi4 Presumptive relation: 办不好事情,会影响公司的荣誉。

8 条件关系tiao2jian4guan1xi4 Conditional relation: 只有你意识到这一点,你才能体会到电影的含义。

It is from my textbook, some of the English I could not find in my dictionary so I had to think of them myself, so they might not be the correct term.

-Shibo :mrgreen:

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shibo77

1 并列关系bing4lie4guan1xi4 Equal relationship

2 承接关系cheng2jie1guan1xi4 Conjuncting relationship

3 选择关系xuan3ze2guan1xi4 Decisional relationship

4 递进关系di4jin4guan1xi4 Sequential relationship

5 转折关系zhuan3zhe2guan1xi4 Turning relationship

6 因果关系yin1guo3guan1xi4 Cause-effect relationship

7 假设关系jia3she4guan1xi4 Presumptive relationship

8 条件关系tiao2jian4guan1xi4 Conditional relationship

9 总分关系zong3fen1guan1xi4 Top-down relationship

10 解证关系jie3zheng4guan1xi4 Detailing relationship

It is from my textbook, some of the English I could not find in my dictionary so I had to think of them myself, so they might not be the correct term. I hope this helped...

-Shìbó :mrgreen:

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