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Mugi

Historical switch from 无/無->没有 in Mandarin

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Mugi

Does anyone know when 没有 first came into usage (as opposed to 无 / 無)?

Am really looking for specific references (preferably in Chinese), but any "guesses" would also be welcome.

Thanks!

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pattifranklin

Mugi-

I am no scholar, and I don't have any references, but I am would think that the change would have taken place in the early 1900's at the close of the dynastys. lots of language reform took place during that time and it has transformed into modern day Chinese. My understanding is up until that time the Chinese wrote and spoke (i'm sure there are execptions) in classical Chinese.

Hope this helps.

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Quest

Isn't 没有 a corrupted usage of 未有?

Or, a variant of 无有(=无).

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againstwind

“Does anyone know when 没有 first came into usage (as opposed to 无 / 無)?”

Hi,

I can't give you the exact time when " 没有" first came into usage. Because as a philologic phenomenon, "没有" ,which was used by common citizens in their daily lives, had probably ocurred in the 1900 when great changes were happening in the whole society of China, even much earlier.

I am inclined that "没有" came to usage as the substitution of "无" in earlier period, maybe in Ming Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty or even the earlier Song Dynasty. Concretely speaking, it occurred in oral language. (We call it 白话.) Then, it also occurred in some literatures.

I research in http://guoxue.baidu.com/ (It's a large language source database on ancient Chinese)

"没有" occurred in

1.凌蒙初:《二刻拍案惊奇》 卷二十二 《痴公子狠使噪脾钱 贤丈人巧赚回头婿》

“家里没有钱钞,眼孔子小,故说出这等议论,全不晓得我们富家行径的。”

2. 吴承恩:《西游记》 第九回 《袁守诚妙算无私曲 老龙王拙计犯天条》

“渔翁道:这都是我两个生意,赡身的勾当,你却没有我闲时节的好处。”

3. 施耐庵:《水浒传》 第四十九回 《珍解宝双越狱 孙立孙新大劫牢》

“……见没有病人。孙立问道:“婶子病在那里房内?”只见外面走入顾大嫂来。”

All of them are of Ming Dynasty. At least, it shows "没有" with the meaning of not have or not exist had come to use at that time.

But I need especially indicate that if you research “没有”in http://guoxue.baidu.com , you must distinguish the pronunciation of “没”in the results: Is it "méi" or "mò"? Because when it is the latter ,it doesn't mean "无", but the ancient Chinese "殁",which means to die or death.

ps

I think it's better to say "没有" is a substitution ,not an opposite of "无".

I recommend another language source database in Peking University:

http://ccl.pku.edu.cn/YuLiao_Contents.Asp

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