观念 - formed over a long period of time; not easily changed. 传统观念，道德观念
观点 - usually public and concerning an important topic. 阶级观点，马克思列宁主义的观点
见解 - "view and understanding"; usually thoroughly thought out.
看法 - similar to 见解 but not necessarily formed through trenchant consideration
立场 - standpoint i.e. position you take when dealing with an issue
念头 - seems to refer to an idea that is transitory in nature. 打消念头，闪过。。。念头
Can you add to the list? Perhaps offer your views or corrections on each word?