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xuechengfeng

Changing a word into something else

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xuechengfeng

There could be a topic on this already, but my clear lack of ability to come up with a title that makes sense prevents me from searching. I thought this would be good to add into the simple, yet confusing grammar rules. Can we get a list of all words that when adding another word, turn into something different (I'll elaborate, so you can get the idea).

高興 - Gao1 xing4 = happy

高興- Gao1 xing4 de = happily

穩定 - Wen3 ding4 = steady, stable

穩定 - Wen3 ding4 xing4 = stability

商品 - Shang1 pin3 = commercial, merchandise

商品 - Shang1 pin3 hua4 = commercialize

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Zhao Hanqing

I'd like to contribute another one,

中国-去中国化=desinicize

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-Ross-

Hi xuechengfeng.

The term you a looking for is:

suffix: An affix added to the end of a word or stem, serving to form a new word or functioning as an inflectional ending, such as -ness in gentleness, -ing in walking, or -s in sits.

Zhao Hanqing, thanks for your contribution but I think we're looking for examples of suffixes more than examples of using already identified suffixes (unless the example is an example use that demonstrates another meaning or use of a previously identified suffix).

So far you have listed:

  • 地 : transforms adjective --> adverb (similar to, but not limited to, -ly in English)
  • 性 : transforms adjective --> noun commenting on the state, degree or characteristic of that adjective (similar to, but not limited to, -ness, -ity)
  • 化 : transforms noun --> 1. verb commenting on a process of transformation from one state to another (-ise / -ize); or 2. to another noun which describes the process (-isation / -ization), e.g. your example of 商品化 can be either commercialise or commercialisation depending on context.

A couple to add:

  • 者 : 'one who', similar to -er, -or, etc., in English, e.g. 学者 = scholar
  • 着 : indicates presently doing, similar to -ing in English, e.g. 我学哲学、文学,正在学着文学 (I study philosophy and literature; (right now) at this moment I'm (in the process of) studying literature)

I'm sure there's a list of these on the 'net somwhere. Until such time as one is found, let's keep adding the basic ones here for now.

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Lugubert

From the several examples in Yip Po-Ching: The Chinese Lexicon and Yuen Ren Chao: A Grammar of Spoken Chinese:

学: for sciences: 化学

主义: -ism: 资本主义

法: -method: 分析法

炎: -inflammation: 肺炎

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xuechengfeng

Ross, ah, yes, the suffix! Thanks for the help, I probably haven't heard that word since elementary school.

Keep adding :mrgreen:

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Zhao Hanqing

I suddenly think o f a suffix, du meaning degree, in gaodu, wendu, nengjiandu,etc. These words meains respectively height or altitude, temperature, visibility.

The characters for the pinyins are:

高度, 温度, 能见度

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-Ross-

The -学 suffix is not limited to sciences.

学: for sciences: 化学

This should be for any branch of study: including the sciences, theories, other fields of study. The most equivalent suffix in English is -ology, e.g.

  • 生理學 physiology (science)
  • 生態學 ecology (science)
  • 語源學 etymology (linguistics-related, non-science)
  • 神學 theology (non-science)

Also (more non-science):

  • 哲學 philosophy
  • 國學 the Chinese national literature, Chinese studies.
  • 民俗文學 folk literature
  • 語言學 philology/ science of language/ linguistics; 語意學 semantics; 語音學 phonetics.

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-Ross-

More:

  • 然: serves as an affix or suffix to form adj. and adv.: 天然 natural(ly)
  • 成: verb suffix, in the sense of “become” or “completed”: 變成 became
  • 過: used to express a completed action (pr. ’[guo1]): 讀過 have read about it

(Source: http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/Lindict/)

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-Ross-
I suddenly think o f a suffix' date=' du meaning degree, in gaodu, wendu, nengjiandu,etc. These words meains respectively height or altitude, temperature, visibility.

The characters for the pinyins are:

高度, 温度, 能见度[/quote']

That is a very useful one, isn't it? Excellent example. You made me think of another one, 率 = Rate (of speed, growth, progress), e.g.

  • 速率 velocity;
  • 變率 rate of change;
  • 效率,能率 efficiency;
  • 比率 ratio;
  • 利率 rate of interest;
  • 出生率 birth rate;
  • 死亡率 death rate;
  • 稅率 tax rate;
  • 生產率 productivity, rate of production.

(Source: here)

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Zhao Hanqing

I think of wen in tianwen, shuiwen, renwen etc. Wen means culture and so on. The pinyins mean astronomy, hydrology, the humanities.

And li in wuli, physics, dili, geograhy, yaoli, pharmacology, and so on. Che in huoche, train, qiche motor vehicle, xiaofangche fire engine, zixingche bike, sanlunche tricycle, mache horse-drawn carriage. Dong in jidongche, motor vehicle, shoudong, manual, fengdong pneumatic etc. And the list is endless.

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Zhao Hanqing

Fang in Jia Fang Side A, Yi Fang Side B, nanfang bridegroom or bridegroom's side, jiangfang the police, xiaofang the school or univeristy authorities, zifang management.

方,甲方,乙方,男方,警方,校方,资方

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Quest

数理化: to mathematicize and to physicsize

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Zhao Hanqing

neng power energy, in taiyangneng solar energy, direneng geothermal energy, huaxueneng chemical energy,jixieneng mechanical energy, fengneng wind power etc.

能,太阳能, 地热能,化学能,机械能, 风能

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jukebox
数理化: to mathematicize and to physicsize

You must be kidding.

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melop

hahaha, 数理化 actually means maths, physics and chemistry.

Before English became an important subject in China, the 3 subject above is thought to be the most important subjects for students.

My teacher used to tell us "学好数理化,走遍天下都不怕"。哈哈哈。

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YangDizi

Following on from the previous examples of the use of [POP=huà]化[/POP] as a suffix:

[POP=xìnxīhuà]信息化[/POP]

The translation into English which government agencies use is "informatise/informatisation" - not only are they inventing words in Chinese, they are also doing the same in English! (I know the word "informatisation" exists in French).

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