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twilightwind

Vietnamese and Chinese syntax?

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twilightwind

Do the both have the same word order for things?

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Ncao

No, they don´t.

Ex. Vietnamese people - (chinese)Yue nan ren; (Vietnamese) nguoi Vietnam

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Zhao Hanqing

Vietnam used to be part of China for a thousand years. Chinese used to be an official language in Vietnam for two thousand years especially their written documents and literature were all in Chinese. Their own language especially latinized one appeared quite late about the turn of the nineteenth century. That is why Vietnamese contain a large number of Chinese loan words, 40 % of the vocabulary. But the two languages are different grammatically speaking.

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HashiriKata
Chinese used to be an official language in Vietnam for two thousand years especially their written documents and literature were all in Chinese.
Overly inaccurate statement. Check your data.
That is why Vietnamese contain a large number of Chinese loan words, 40 % of the vocabulary.
No, that is not the reason. China's never ruled Japan but there are at least 50% of Chinese loanwords within Japanese.
Their own language especially latinized one appeared quite late about the turn of the nineteenth century.
The written form of the language is not the language itself. If tomorrow China decided to use only pinyin to write Chinse, this wouldn't mean that the Chinese language appeared in the beginning of the 21st Century.

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Zhao Hanqing

Sorry I made a mistake. Vietnamese have used written Chinese language and spoken their own language for two thousand years. They did have their spoken language a long time ago but did not have their own written language, so they used written Chinese instead.

Accurately speaking, a large part of Vietnamese documents and literature is in Chinese. Before latinizing their own language, they invented their own Chinese characters imitating Chinese characters, namely 字喃, meaning southern characters to express objects and customs that did not exist in China. So before romanization of Vietnamese they also used Chinese written language mixed with zinans as their own written form of Vietnamese concurrently with pure written Chinese. But I suppose written Chinese has remained very importand till the end of the second world war, that is, 1945.

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nnt
Quote:

Chinese used to be an official language in Vietnam for two thousand years especially their written documents and literature were all in Chinese.

Overly inaccurate statement. Check your data.

That is accurate.

Classical Chinese was the official language in Vietnam from its independance in 939 until 1918!!!

Chinese characters and Nôm were used simultaneously.

The two short periods in which Nôm was the official language were the Hồ dynasty (1400-1407) and the Nguyễn Tây Sơn dynasty (1788-1802).

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HashiriKata

Sorry it was my fault. I read it too quickly and thought that Zhao Hanqing was saying that VN was under the Chinese rule for two thousand years. But as it's about the language, I'd rather check the data than making such a statement. :oops:

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Kong Junrui

If you are refering to the word order in sentence structure, then according to Wikipedia, then yes, they do have the same order. Both languages (and many others, for that matter) share the Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) order.

For example, you'd use the same order for the phrase "I love you" in both languages:

我爱你。

Anh yêu em.

Though, I don't know Vietnamese so I can't really offer any more examples.

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Zhao Hanqing

My dear nnt,

I wonder how you have acquired such detailed knowledge! Yes, exactly Vietnam gained independence in 939, in Later Jin Dynasty of the Five Dynasties Period after the ending of Tang Dynasty. But you must remember Vietnam was part of China before that time and of course Chinese was used as official language before 939 because all the local officials in the local government in Vietnam were dispatched there from the central government in China.

Funny to say, even after independence, Vietnamese still regarded themselves as Chinese.The rulers of independent Vietnam still considered their country a part of China in spite of separate ruling. One emperor of Vietnam thought their country was the southern dynasty while Song Dynasty of China was the northern dynasty and both belonged to one cultural China. Just like the case of Taiwan. Most Taiwanese consider them Chinese at least culturally speaking.

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Ncao

Zhao Hanqing,

My family are ethnic Chinese from Vietnam (越南華僑) and I can tell you the Vietnamese never consider themself Chinese. Also there were discrimination against the ethnic Chinese in Vietnam.Yes, the Chinese had alot of influences on Vietnamese culture,but there are also lot of differences between the 2 cultures.

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nnt
even after independence, Vietnamese still regarded themselves as Chinese.The rulers of independent Vietnam still considered their country a part of China in spite of separate ruling.

There is a slight difference between Chinese emperors' views and Vietnamese emperors' views.(that is to leave the peoples aside...:wink: )

Chinese emperors' always considered Vietnam as part of the CHinese empire, and considered Vietnamese emperors' title 帝號 as usurped (僭號)

On the other hand, the Vietnamese emperors always call themselves emperors, which in those times meant a declaration of independance.

One emperor of Vietnam thought their country was the southern dynasty while Song Dynasty of China was the northern dynasty and both belonged to one cultural China.

南國山河南帝居

You misunderstood the real meaning of this sentence: that was a declaration of independance.

An emperor is di4/đế 帝 and second to none, while a king (wang2 / vương 王 ) is subject to a 帝 .

(That's also why such films' titles as 雍正王朝 is ridiculous : such a film-maker would have been beheaded 200 years ago and his 3 related families with him :mrgreen: )

There is a thread which discussed about relationship between CHinese and Vietnamese languages (heavy borrowings in vocabulary, fundamental differences in grammar):

http://www.chinese-forums.com/index.php?/topic/5569-vietnamese-relationship-with-chinese-languages

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Zhao Hanqing

My dear ncao,

I do know Vietnamese don't think themselves Chinese now and there is serious discrimination against ethnic Chinese in Vietnam.

What I mean is that in the past, a long time after gaining independence from China, the Vietnamese rulers regarded their country as Zhonghua or Zhongguo. You can find indisputable proof of that in historical documents of Vietnam. Please read my poster carefully which is in past tense.

Take care!

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Zhao Hanqing

You are truely erudite about history of Vietnam. Yes, Vietnamese emperors called themselves emperors in their own country behind closed door. When paying tributes to Chinese emperors they had to call themselves king.

Your remarks about yongzhengwangchao are absolutely correct! I wonder if you are Chinese.

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nnt
What I mean is that in the past, a long time after gaining independence from China, the Vietnamese rulers regarded their country as Zhonghua or Zhongguo. You can find indisputable proof of that in historical documents of Vietnam
.

THis isn't quite true...:wink: I would say the opposite.

The 1st declaration of independance(南國山河南帝居) was not enough, so a second one (in classical Chinese of course ) was issued 400 years later, after the Ming troops were expelled :

惟我大越之國,

Duy ngã Đại Việt chi quốc

實為文獻之邦.

Thực vi văn hiến chi bang.

山川之封域 旣殊,

Sơn xuyên chi phong vực ký thù,

南北之風俗亦異.

Nam Bắc chi phong tục diệc dị.

趙丁李陳之肇造我國,

Tự Triệu, Đinh, Lý, Trần chi triệu tạo ngã quốc,

漢唐宋元各帝 一方.

Dữ Hán, Đường, Tống, Nguyên nhi các đế nhất phương.

Our country, the Đại Việt, is a civilized country. Our rivers and mountains are different, and our social customs distinct from those of China. Ever since the creation of our country by the Triệu, Đinh, Lý , Trần dynasties, we have stood as independant empires, in parallel with the Han, Tang,Song,Yuan in the North.

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Zhao Hanqing

What I said is absolutely true.

Quite a long time after independence the rulers of Vietnam still regarded themselves as part of China at least in culture. As time went by, they more and more thought their country an independent one . Even so the rulers still regarded Vietnam as China, or rather another China. The places where the emperors of Vietnam refer to their country as Zhonghua or Zhongguo are numerous in the historical documents of Vietnam. Unfortunately I don't have such books at hand, so I can't quote you. Of course they considered Vietnam an independent Zhongguo different from the real Zhongguo. If fact the rulers usurped the title of Zhongguo in my opinion. Although they defeated Ming troops, Vietnam remained a vassal state of Ming dynasty which had to pay tributes to Ming emperors all duration of Ming dynasty. Of course the Vietnamese rulers only called their country Zhongguo behind closed door and they dared not do so in presence of Ming emperors.

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nnt
What I said is absolutely true.

The places where the emperors of Vietnam refer to their country as Zhonghua or Zhongguo are numerous in the historical documents of Vietnam. Unfortunately I don't have such books at hand, so I can't quote you. Of course they considered Vietnam an independent Zhongguo different from the real Zhongguo.

This is the first time I ever read that the Vietnamese refer to their country , even in private :wink: , as Zhongguo. They always call their country 南國 Nan2 Guo2/Nam Quốc as opposed to 北國 Bei3 Guo2/Bắc Quốc (China).

中國 Zhongguo/Trung Quốc has always designed CHina (or part of it :wink: ) in all Vietnamese historical documents. This is basic vocabulary (South/Centre/North):wink: , not syntax...As you may have guessed, I'm Vietnamese.

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Zhao Hanqing

I realize you an ignorant Vietnamese. Read the following passage.

中土之外自称中华的国度不止日本,越南是另外一个例子。安南历朝政权自称“中华”、“中国”的事例,也不胜枚举。例如陈朝兴隆八年(1300),英宗传檄诸将:“汝等坐视主辱,曾不为忧,身尝国耻,曾不为愧。为中国之将,侍立夷酋,而无忿心!”大抵是安南僭称中国之始。

但是越南立国,基本上是趁唐末五代十国混乱之机,以边藩自立,大量上层人士来自中国内地,所以长期具有“南北朝”的心态,以现代语讲,就是持“两个中国”态度。《大越史记本纪陈纪陈艺宗》:“帝尝曰:先朝立国,自有法度,不遵宋制,盖以南北各帝其国,不相袭也。”就是明证。在这种心态下,甚至有时会自居正统,例如《大越史记本纪实录卷一》载1427年黎朝太祖谕天下曰:“贼在中国,民犹未定,于汝安乎?昔胡氏无道,贼因此而夺我国家”云云,明白表示自己是“中国”,而大明则是“贼”。

Are you convinced my dear?

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roddy
My dear nnt,

I wonder how you have acquired such detailed knowledge!

You are truely erudite about history of Vietnam.
I wonder if you are Chinese.
I realize you an ignorant Vietnamese.

Ah, how the mighty have fallen . . . .

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nnt

:“汝等坐视主辱,曾不为忧,身尝国耻,曾不为愧。为中国之将,侍立夷酋,而无忿心!”

was not written issued in 1300 but is a distorted exerpt of generalissimo 陳 國 俊 Trần Quốc Tuấn's famous proclamation to his generals during the anti-Mongol resistance in 1282 . The exact sentence everybody knows is

汝等坐視主辱曾不為憂,身當國耻曾不為愧,為邦國之將侍立夷酋而無憤心

Nhữ đẳng tọa thị chủ nhục nhi bất vi ưu, thân đương quốc sỉ tằng bất vi quý, vi bang quốc chi tướng thị lập di tù nhi vô phẫn tâm ...

夷酋 designing the Mongol barbarian hords :wink:

“贼在中国"

I have not checked the sentence, but it's true that tặc 贼 (and synonyms like khấu 寇)is what the Vietnamese called uninvited guests .

"Tặc" = giặc in Vietnamese, like "giặc Minh" above mentioned ,"giặc Pháp" concerning French , "giặc Mỹ" concerning some American in some historical occasions :wink:

The first declaration of independance used nghịch lỗ "逆 虜"

南 國 山 河 南 帝 居

Nam quốc sơn hà Nam đế cư

截 然 定 分 在 天 書

Tiệt nhiên định phận tại thiên thư.

如 何 逆 虜 來 侵 犯

Như hà nghịch lỗ lai xâm phạm

汝 等 行 看 取 敗 虛

Nhữ đẳng hành khan thủ bại hư.

taken from the Vietnamese reference book written in classical Chinese for the history of Vietnam from the beginning to the end of the XVIIth century 大越史記全書 Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư (History of Dai Viet) published in 1697,(in: "Lý Nhân Tông hoàng đế" 李仁宗皇帝 Bính Thìn (year 丙辰 1076 ) .

The 2nd proclamation of independance can be read here :

http://nom.netnam.vn/HanNom/TuLieu/binhngo.htm

which is also taken from the 大越史記全書 Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư.

A few exerpts :

頃因胡政之煩苛。

至使人心之怨叛。

狂明伺隙,

因以毒我民;

Khoảnh nhân Hồ chính chi phiền hà

chí sử nhân tâm chi oán bạn.

Cuồng Minh tứ khích,

nhân dĩ độc ngã dân.

狂明 Cuồng Minh Silly Ming

予奮跡藍山,棲身荒野。

世讎豈可共戴,

逆賊難與俱生。

Dư phấn tích Lam Sơn, thê thân hoang dã.

Niệm thế thù khởi khả cộng đái,

Thệ nghịch tặc nan dữ câu sinh.

etc... Classical Chinese is very rich :wink:

To Roddy :

“The Tarpeian Rock is near the Capitol” :wink:

But as the Great Master of 10000 generations said :

「 學而時習之, 不亦說乎? 有自遠方來, 不亦樂乎?人不知而不慍,不亦君子乎?」 :wink:

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wushijiao
但是越南立国,基本上是趁唐末五代十国混乱之机,以边藩自立,大量上层人士来自中国内地,所以长期具有“南北朝”的心态,以现代语讲,就是持“两个中国”态度"

What is the source of this? I'm not saying the information is incorrect (because I don't know enough about it), but it seems like the language is fairly biased. When, by the way, did the term 中国 refering to China come out? I always assumed dynasties where refered to by their names in ancient Chinese.

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