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OneEye

Grand 文言文 Reading Project #11: 《魚我所欲也》 by 孟子

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OneEye

This week (late again, sorry!) we're doing this famous passage from 《孟子·告子上》. Both Fuller and Shadick have annotated versions in their respective textbooks, and this is copied and pasted from the Chinese Text Project.

孟子曰:「魚,我所欲也;熊掌,亦我所欲也,二者不可得兼,舍魚而取熊掌者也。生,亦我所欲也;義,亦我所欲也,二者不可得兼,舍生而取義者也。生亦我所欲,所欲有甚於生者,故不為苟得也;死亦我所惡,所惡有甚於死者,故患有所不辟也。如使人之所欲莫甚於生,則凡可以得生者,何不用也?使人之所惡莫甚於死者,則凡可以辟患者,何不為也?由是則生而有不用也,由是則可以辟患而有不為也。是故所欲有甚於生者,所惡有甚於死者,非獨賢者有是心也,人皆有之,賢者能勿喪耳。一簞食,一豆羹,得之則生,弗得則死。嘑爾而與之,行道之人弗受;蹴爾而與之,乞人不屑也。萬鍾則不辨禮義而受之。萬鍾於我何加焉?為宮室之美、妻妾之奉、所識窮乏者得我與?鄉為身死而不受,今為宮室之美為之;鄉為身死而不受,今為妻妾之奉為之;鄉為身死而不受,今為所識窮乏者得我而為之,是亦不可以已乎?此之謂失其本心。」

I'm including commentary this time around for anyone interested in tackling that. It comes from 《四書章句集注·告子章句上》 #10.1, again, copied and pasted from the Chinese Text Project. I'll break it up to make it a bit easier to follow.

孟子曰:「魚,我所欲也;熊掌,亦我所欲也,二者不可得兼,舍魚而取熊掌者也。生,亦我所欲也;義,亦我所欲也,二者不可得兼,舍生而取義者也。

舍,上聲。魚與熊掌皆美味,而熊掌尤美也。

生亦我所欲,所欲有甚於生者,故不為苟得也;死亦我所惡,所惡有甚於死者,故患有所不辟也。

惡、辟,皆去聲,下同。釋所以舍生取義之意。得,得生也。欲生惡死者,雖眾人利害之常情;而欲惡有甚於生死者,乃秉彝義理之良心,是以欲生而不為苟得,惡死而有所不避也。

如使人之所欲莫甚於生,則凡可以得生者,何不用也?使人之所惡莫甚於死者,則凡可以辟患者,何不為也?

設使人無秉彝之良心,而但有利害之私情,則凡可以偷生免死者,皆將不顧禮義而為之矣。

由是則生而有不用也,由是則可以辟患而有不為也。

由其必有秉彝之良心,是以其能舍生取義如此。

是故所欲有甚於生者,所惡有甚於死者,非獨賢者有是心也,人皆有之,賢者能勿喪耳。

喪,去聲。羞惡之心,人皆有之,但眾人汨於利欲而忘之,惟賢者能存之而不喪耳。

一簞食,一豆羹,得之則生,弗得則死。咴爾而與之,行道之人弗受;蹴爾而與之,乞人不屑也。

食,音嗣。咴,呼故反。蹴,子六反。豆,木器也。咴,咄啐之貌。行道之人,路中凡人也。蹴,踐踏也。乞人,丐乞之人也。不屑,不以為潔也。言雖欲食之急而猶惡無禮,有寧死而不食者。是其羞惡之本心,欲惡有甚於生死者,人皆有之也。

萬鍾則不辨禮義而受之。萬鍾於我何加焉?為宮室之美、妻妾之奉、所識窮乏者得我與?

為,去聲。與,平聲。萬鍾於我何加,言於我身無所增益也。所識窮乏者得我,謂所知識之窮乏者感我之惠也。上言人皆有羞惡之心,此言眾人所以喪之。由此三者,蓋理義之心雖曰固有,而物欲之蔽,亦人所易昏也。

鄉為身死而不受,今為宮室之美為之;鄉為身死而不受,今為妻妾之奉為之;鄉為身死而不受,今為所識窮乏者得我而為之,是亦不可以已乎?此之謂失其本心。」

鄉、 為,並去聲。為之之為,並如字。言三者身外之物,其得失比生死為甚輕。鄉為身死猶不肯受咴蹴之食,今乃為此三者而受無禮義之萬鍾,是豈不可以止乎?本心, 謂羞惡之心。此章言羞惡之心,人所固有。或能決死生於危迫之際,而不免計豐約於宴安之時,是以君子不可頃刻而不省察於斯焉。

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